For me, the name Corning had meant hefty

For me, the name Corning had meant hefty, chipped white cookware, seemingly hand-painted with a primitive looping swirl on the rims of the lids. But in the building I was looking at now, Corning had been researching high-tech glass for decades, often without a clear commercial application in view—the kind of pure science that many companies can’t afford these days.

The superthin, scratch-resistant glass on the iPhone was developed by Corning scientists. And the company is not just about smartphone glass: The nine-story glass building in front of me was the home of Corning’s long-term research in fiber optics. Corning is a small place—once a village, then a hamlet, now a town, population about 11,000—that grew up around the glass-making industry in the 19th century.
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Walking around the town’s historic downtown district the afternoon before, I’d found restaurants, shops, and art galleries; it’s a welcoming few blocks that seem to be thriving.

But first, coffee.

Claudio Mazzali, a bright-eyed, energetic Brazilian physicist who has been with the company since 1999 and now leads technology efforts for two of its divisions, met me in the lobby of the research building and showed me to a large room lined by screens and gadgets.

FTTH Cables In & Ooutdoor Use


-Simple structure, light weight and high tensile strength of cable, FTTX outdoor application
-Novel groove design, easy strip and splice, simplified installation and maintenance, higher tensile strength.
-Suitable as cable extending from outdoor (as aerial cable) to indoor/outdoor
-Low smoke, zero halogen and flame retardant sheath, environment and friendly, good safety
FTTH Cables Indoor Use Drop Optical Fiber Cable

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-Simple structure, light weight and high tensile strength of cable, FTTX application
-Novel groove design, easy strip and splice, simplified installation and maintenance
-Low smoke, zero halogen and flame retardant sheath, environment and friendly, good safety

A municipality building fiber is looking return

A municipality building fiber is looking return on investment is going to be much different, because this investment is about community growth and prosperity, not a fiscal profit. The return on investment a municipality looks for is going to depend on what their broadband goals were. Some common returns on investment are:

A thriving business district.
New businesses opening in the town.
A younger population moving in.
More families setting down roots in the community.
4. Finance and Regulation
Broadband infrastructure is a hot-button issue in government right now. From Washington to your local state house politicians are trying to decide the best way to connect us all. Whatever changes the government makes, now or in the future, have to be carefully considered by anyone building fiber infrastructure.
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One way government is helping build better broadband is by providing grant money to ISPs and municipalities. The FCC Connect America Fund works to provide ISPs money, using the ACAM model, to build broadband infrastructure in rural areas. This is great for ISPs because it balances out the high cost of building fiber in rural areas.

When an ISP builds new infrastructure in one specific rural area, they can delegate other funds to connect homes they pass along the way. This way an ISP can connect more homes. The FCC is also providing funds for state government grants that can be granted to rural municipalities looking to build out their broadband infrastructure.

Franklin, TN, USA - April 4, 2016: Stores on main street in downtown Franklin, Tennessee.
Municipal Broadband is a hot-button issue across the country.

K-12 Education: Aside from the obvious access

K-12 Education: Aside from the obvious access to information for studying, children and their parents can always be engaged in the educational process through educational web portals. These portals provide an interface to communicate with teachers and administrators, real-time access to assignments and grades, and numerous educational resources.

Access to Health Care: Telemedicine has made advances that allow for the digital transfer of information that once required traditional telephone technology. Today, high-speed fiber connections allow health care professionals to evaluate, diagnose, and treat patients in remote locations using telecommunications technology.
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Fiber optic Internet provides seamless video connections, so patients in remote locations can access medical experts quickly and efficiently without having to travel.

Independent Living for the Aging or Disabled: Aging in place and independent living are quickly becoming more important to us as the population ages. The most affordable home automation products are cloud-based and Internet-dependent.  A wide array of products from voice-activated devices to panic alarms can have a profound impact on quality of life for senior citizens, the disabled, and the people who care for them.

A Complete Guide to Fiber Optic Internet

Fiber optic Internet is the future of broadband. It uses fiber-optic technology to reach the fastest speeds available today, as fast as 10000 Mbps (1Gpbs). Broadband is essential to the modern world we live in. Powered by fiber optic technology, fiber Internet is blowing its competitors out of the water. In this guide, we will cover everything you need to know about fiber Internet, including how it works and the challenges associated with it.

How Fiber Optics Work
When we refer to “fiber” in this guide we are talking about fiber optic Internet, which is a form of fiber-optic communications. By sending a beam of light through fiber optic glass cables, we are able to transfer information through what is a truly fascinating process.

Optical Fibers
Fiber cables are made up of many smaller optical fibers. These fibers are extremely thin, to be specific they are less than a tenth as thick as a human hair. Though they are thin, they have a lot going on. Each optical fiber has two parts:
The Core:Usually made of glass, the core is the innermost part of the fiber, where the light passes through.
The Cladding: Usually made of a thicker layer of plastic or glass, the cladding is wrapped around the core.


Light, telecommunications, Internet, data transmission, speed transmission, these are in general the most popular association of ideas when talking about fibre optic cables.
A wide range of cables are now available and special constructions can be designed for all new on-coming applications.

Data transmission
Video communications
LAN applications
Safety and supervisory systems
Railways stations
Process controls
IEC 60793-2-50
IEC 11801
IEC 60793-2
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EN 50173

Singlemode 9/125
Multimode 50/125
Multimode 62.5/125
Multimode 200/230
Other special fibres are available if requested.

Tigth coating
Semi-Tight coating
Singlefibre loose coating
Multifibre loose coating
Ribbon fibres


Fibre optic cables can be produced to guarantee the following performances:

Repeating bending resistance
High temperature resistance
Aggressive environment conditions resistance
Fire resistance, with working also during the fire (IEC 60331-25)

A few weeks ago, Cailabs upgraded a multimode system spanning

A few weeks ago, Cailabs upgraded a multimode system spanning four kilometers for a major German chemical plant. "Now we are qualified at 10 gigabits [per second] and are testing 100 [Gbps]. You can imagine the savings over recabling in a factory," says Morizur.

The Georgia Institute of Technology had found the costs of replacing cables stretching 400 to 1,100 meters to 35 separate fraternity houses unaffordable, but was able to upgrade the original 100 Mbps capacity to 10 Gbps over a weekend by plugging in the Cailabs modules.

Some 85 to 90 million kilometers of multimode fiber have been installed since 1980, estimates Richard Mack, principal analyst at the CRU Group, a market research firm. Some is not upgradable because it’s built into dedicated links or used in non-networked applications.
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What are Fiber Optics?

Fiber optics (optical fibers) are long, thin strands of very pure glass about the diameter of a human hair. They are arranged in bundles called optical cables and used to transmit light signals over long distances.

If you look closely at a single optical fiber, you will see that it has the following parts:

TECHNICAL NOTE: Fiber Optic Cable Types

View as PDF
By Dale Martin
Jan. 21st 2019
Fiber Optic connectors and cables are present in nearly every communications project that we might sell into, be it a DAS installation or a Base Station with wireless backhaul, you can be certain that fiber jumpers and cabling are being used somewhere in that network. Having a general understanding of fiber optics and the different fiber and connector types that are available will allow you to have a more productive conversation with your customer.

Some Fiber Basics: Transmitting Signals with Light
Digital Light Signals – Lasers inside the equipment generate the light that the fiber cables carry.

Just as copper cables use pulses of electricity to carry signals across a copy wire, Fiber Optic cable uses pulses of light. For digital communication we transmit in ones and zeros. For copper, the difference between a one and a zero is a change or variation in the electric pulse within a certain acceptable range. To keep it really simple, the presence of a pulse at a certain time is a one (1) and the absence of a pulse is a zero (0). The same principle is used for fiber optics only instead of electrical pulses we use pulses of light. A laser source inside the hardware is used to turn the light on and off. For Fiber Optics, again keeping it as simple as possible, the presence of a light pulse at a certain time is a one (1) while the absence of a light pulse is a zero (0). To further simplify it – light on = 1, light off = 0.
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The Optical Core – a glass tube (core) propagates the light signals through the fiber cable.

Glass is inherently reflective and is a perfect medium for transporting light. Because of this, fiber optic cables use a glass tube (core) in their center to transport the light pulses generated by the lasers. These light pulses travel (propagate) down the glass core by reflecting (bouncing) off of the sides. Other than the original laser, the transported signal does not require any power whatsoever, the light reflecting inside the core is what carries the signal through the fiber cable. The signal does weaken the farther it travels and will eventually need to be regenerated but not before it has traveled quite a long way. Some fiber optic cables can carry signals for 60 miles or more before they need regenerated.

The Role of Fiber Optic Cables in Computer Networking

A fiber optic cable is a network cable that contains strands of glass fibers inside an insulated casing. They're designed for long-distance, high-performance data networking, and telecommunications. Compared to wired cables, fiber optic cables provide higher bandwidth and transmit data over longer distances. Fiber optic cables support much of the world's internet, cable television, and telephone systems.

How Fiber Optic Cables Work
A fiber optic cable consists of one or more strands of glass, each only slightly thicker than a human hair. The center of each strand is called the core, which provides the pathway for light to travel. The core is surrounded by a layer of glass called cladding that reflects light inward to avoid loss of signal and allow the light to pass through bends in the cable.
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The two primary types of optical fiber cables are single mode and multi-mode. Single-mode fiber uses extremely thin glass strands and a laser to generate light, while multi-mode optical fiber cables use LEDs.

Single-mode optical fiber networks often use Wave Division Multiplexing techniques to increase the amount of data traffic that the strand can carry. WDM allows light at multiple different wavelengths to be combined (multiplexed) and later separated (de-multiplexed), effectively transmitting multiple communication streams through a single light pulse.

Other noise limits that quickly swamp the quantum noise

Other noise limits that quickly swamp the quantum noise are those I mentioned at the beginning: Raman, amplified spontaneous emission from in-line optical amplifiers, Rayleigh scattering, Brillouin scattering. Again, the calculation will need to be modified for those depending on the exact link parameters.

 These noises tend to increase in proportion to the link length, and therefore one often sees bandwidth-distance products quoted for "he-man" announcements of fibre capacity in experiements (e.g. 1 terrabit per second over a 100km link; the same link should roughly take 2TBps over 50km , 4tBPs over 25km and so on until the quantum noise limits everything).

As above, the bandwidth limit B also has an inverse dependence on fibre length, but a zero length fibre transmission will still be marred by the quantum noise of the link's source. So the true dependence on link length L of the capacity C, taking this into account, will be something like C=C1L0+L where L0 is something much less than a kilometer and accounts for the source's quantum noise.

Current figures quoted are tens of terrabits per fibre core - (see here - I'm sorry I don't have a better reference for this, it has been some time since telecommunication technology was wonted to me). Even higher figures can be gotten for short fibres (kilometres in length) with multimoded cores so that the power density in the core is not so constraining.
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 The disadvantage is that dispersion (now difference between transmission speeds of the fibre's bound eigenmodes) is now the limiting factor, thus only short fibres can be used. For a single mode fibre, only chromatic dispersion, as discussed by roadrunner66, is present. This can be effectively cancelled when the link dispersion is known (as it is for long haul links) by imparting the inverse dispersion at either the sending or receiving end using a Bragg grating device.

Although fiber-optic systems excel in high-bandwidth applications

Although fiber-optic systems excel in high-bandwidth applications, optical fiber has been slow to achieve its goal of fiber to the premises or to solve the last mile problem. However, as bandwidth demand increases, more and more progress towards this goal can be observed. In Japan, for instance EPON has largely replaced DSL as a broadband Internet source.

 South Korea's KT also provides a service called FTTH (Fiber To The Home), which provides fiber-optic connections to the subscriber's home. The largest FTTH deployments are in Japan, South Korea, and China. Singapore started implementation of their all-fiber Next Generation Nationwide Broadband Network (Next Gen NBN), which is slated for completion in 2012 and is being installed by OpenNet. Since they began rolling out services in September 2010, network coverage in Singapore has reached 85% nationwide.

In the US, Verizon Communications provides a FTTH service called FiOS to select high-ARPU (Average Revenue Per User) markets within its existing territory. The other major surviving ILEC (or Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier), AT&T, uses a FTTN (Fiber To The Node) service called U-verse with twisted-pair to the home. Their MSO competitors employ FTTN with coax using HFC. All of the major access networks use fiber for the bulk of the distance from the service provider's network to the customer.
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The globally dominant access network technology is EPON (Ethernet Passive Optical Network). In Europe, and among telcos in the United States, BPON (ATM-based Broadband PON) and GPON (Gigabit PON) had roots in the FSAN (Full Service Access Network) and ITU-T standards organizations under their control.

Digital predistortion

Digital predistortion
An optical communication system transmitter consists of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC), a driver amplifier and a Mach–Zehnder-Modulator. The deployment of higher modulation formats (> 4QAM) or higher Baud rates (> 32 GBaud) diminishes the system performance due to linear and non-linear transmitter effects. These effects can be categorised in linear distortions due to DAC bandwidth limitation and transmitter I/Q skew as well as non-linear effects caused by gain saturation in the driver amplifier and the Mach–Zehnder modulator.

Digital predistortion counteracts the degrading effects and enables Baud rates up to 56 GBaud and modulation formats like 64QAM and 128QAM with the commercially available components. The transmitter digital signal processor performs digital predistortion on the input signals using the inverse transmitter model before uploading the samples to the DAC.

Older digital predistortion methods only addressed linear effects. Recent publications also compensated for non-linear distortions. Berenguer et al models the Mach–Zehnder modulator as an independent Wiener system and the DAC and the driver amplifier are modelled by a truncated, time-invariant Volterra series.[15] Khanna et al used a memory polynomial to model the transmitter components jointly.[16] In both approaches the Volterra series or the memory polynomial coefficients are found using Indirect-learning architecture.
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Duthel et al records for each branch of the Mach-Zehnder modulator several signals at different polarity and phases. The signals are used to calculate the optical field. Cross-correlating in-phase and quadrature fields identifies the timing skew. The frequency response and the non-linear effects are determined by the indirect-learning architecture.[17]

Analisa Rugi-Rugi Serat Optik Sebagai Potensi Aplikasi Sensor Weigh In Motion (WIM) Lima Lekukan

Analisa Rugi-Rugi Serat Optik Sebagai Potensi Aplikasi Sensor Weigh In Motion (WIM) Lima Lekukan

Fiber optic loss yielded from macrobending with fivebending model prototype. The purpose this study is to determine the influence of scratches variation toward the loss as a potential Weigh In Motion (WIM) sensor applications to plastic optical fiber (POF) diameter 0,5mm..

 Pressure influence toward POF loss done up to 2 mm shift. LED, as light source, transmits the light through the fiber and received by LDR as detector. 

The output is voltage displayed on the computer. Pressure caused by a shift made the fiber is depressed and formed fivebending so that the loss is greater. Two scratch, three scratch, without a scratch have applied. The study result show that the more scratches, the loss was greater . 

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Every the loss value caused by giving certain mass. The highest sensitivity when three scratches was applied which has correlation coefficient R2 0,99744 with gradient 1,2264 so this model have has the potential in Weigh In Motion (WIM) sensor applications.

A technology that uses glass

A technology that uses glass (or plastic) threads (fibers) to transmit data. A fiber optic cable consists of a bundle of glass threads, each of which is capable of transmitting messages modulated onto light waves.

Fiber optics has several advantages over traditional metal communications lines:

Fiber optic cables have a much greater bandwidth than metal cables. This means that they can carry more data.
Fiber optic cables are less susceptible than metal cables to interference.
Fiber optic cables are much thinner and lighter than metal wires.
Data can be transmitted digitally (the natural form for computer data) rather than analogically.

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The main disadvantage of fiber optics is that the cables are expensive to install. In addition, they are more fragile than wire and are difficult to splice.

Fiber optics is a particularly popular technology for local-area networks. In addition, telephone companies are steadily replacing traditional telephone lines with fiber optic cables. In the future, almost all communications will employ fiber optics.

Imports High, National Fiber Optic Cable Production Utility Stagnant

The Director of Electronics and Telematics Industry at the Ministry of Industry Janu Suryanto said a number of electronic products were depressed due to heavy imports. In addition to fiber optic cables, he said, the speaker device and the light emitting diode (LED) lamp were also depressed.
This condition affects the utility of domestic production. For fiber optic cables, Janu said that the domestic installed production capacity reached 180,000 km per year.
However, the utility only reaches 40% -50%. "Imports are rising and selling prices are much lower," he told Bisnis on Tuesday (11/26/2019).
Janu said that he wanted to encourage protection of optical fiber products. "In essence, it must be limited to imports of finished goods."
Previously, Janu said that his party would facilitate the proposed safeguards or urgent safeguards given to the loudspeakers and optical fiber devices in the midst of massive imports of these products. The security measure, he said, had been requested by the producers of the two products.
"The loudspeaker and optical cable. I am waiting for a letter from a company that feels disadvantaged," he said.
In addition to increased imports, Janu assesses that foreign products entering Indonesia are sold at far cheaper prices than local products. That condition, he explained, depressed local products.

Definition of Optical Fiber (Optical Fiber) and its Types

Understanding Optical Fiber (Optical Fiber) and its Types - At present, Fiber Optic Cables are widely used by internet and telecommunications service providers to send images, voice messages and data. Communication using fiber optic cable is basically a technique of transmitting data from one location to another with light pulses. 

Cable made of plastic or glass can transmit data quickly and effectively when compared with copper cables in general. This Optical Fiber or Optical Fiber cables have played an important role in the telecommunications industry, especially in terms of data transmission and are predicted to replace copper cables as the main transmission media in the future.

Definition of Optical Fiber (Optical Fiber)
What is Optical Fiber or Optical Fiber (Optical Fiber)?
Optical Fiber or in English called Optical Fiber or Fiber Optics is a type of cable made of glass fiber or fine plastic that can transmit light signals from one place to another. The diameter of the fiber optic cable is generally around 120 micrometers. While the source of light can be a laser beam or LED beam. The advantages of using Fiber Optic Cable as a transmission medium include the high bandwidth it has, it is not susceptible to interference when compared to copper cables, is thinner and lighter and can transmit data in digital form.


What does "open for sale" mean on the deployment monitoring portal?

This means that the primary infrastructure works have been completed, that the pooling point has been declared to the Regulatory Authority (ARCEP) and Internet service providers and that the three-month period during which any commercial approach is "Jelly" is finished.
You can therefore contact your internet service provider now.
However, this does not mean that all the dwellings in this sector are served, this service being linked to the completion of the final connection (underground, overhead or on the facade).
To note ! “Underground” distribution works are faster because they do not require specific technical authorizations.
The deployment monitoring card shows the number of sockets already deployed at each of the pooling points. This figure will change rapidly with the pace of updates.

I am in an “open to marketing” sector, however, when I check my eligibility on operator sites, my accommodation does not appear to be eligible.

In this case, two hypotheses:
  • The "rear" deployment is underway but your accommodation is not yet serviced: you still have to wait a little.
  • Technical difficulties prevent or delay your connection. These can be of several types:
    • Degraded network between the street cabinet and the optical connection point requiring technical intervention
    • Refusal to install a box on a facade by a resident, requiring a review of the service road (when there are alternatives)

Can I know the exact date on which my home will actually be served by fiber?

The work is being carried out gradually, depending on the permits issued and the technical difficulties encountered, such as sheath breaks, refusals to pass on the facade.
Consequently, it is currently not possible to communicate with precision on the date of eligibility of the 43,500 households in the territory.

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I want to subscribe to a fiber subscription, do I have to go through the operator who carries out the work, ie SFR?

No. The network will be shared with Internet Service Providers (ISPs) who will choose whether or not to position themselves in your sector.
To find out more, simply contact the operator of your choice.
Please note: All operators (FAI) do not yet offer a fiber service offer in our territory.

Fiber optics: definition, news and good practices

Fiber optics: definition

Very fine glass or plastic wire which conducts light for fibroscopy, lighting or the transmission of digital data. This wire offers a significantly higher data rate than traditional coaxial cables.
The development of fiber goes hand in hand with the evolution of uses and the growing needs of individuals (individuals and businesses). However, it should be noted that the installation of optical fiber is generally observed in areas with high population density.
Fiber: an Orange submarine cable used to prevent earthquakes
Technology: The submarine fiber optic cable FLY-LION3, installed by Orange Marine to connect Mayotte to the global Internet will be used to prevent seismic activity in the region. Enough to reaffirm the importance of Internet backbones.
Beyond connecting geographic areas to the Web, submarine fiber optic cables can have other unusual uses. Another example with a use case communicated this Tuesday by Orange, one of the main French players in submarine cabling via its subsidiary Orange Marine.
The historic operator and the members of the consortium behind the FLY-LION3 cable - which has connected Mayotte since October 10 to the global Internet - announced on Tuesday the signing of an agreement with the Institut de physics of the Paris globe . The object of this agreement? Provide this cable, connecting over 400 km Moroni (Grande Comore) to Mamoudzou (Mayotte) for the detection of seismic movements in this risk zone.
To this end, a pair of optical fibers from the cable will be made available to the Mayotte Volcanological and Seismological Monitoring Network (IPGP) in order to test a new technique for listening to seismic movements in the region. The institute will thus be able to rely on surveys from a 50 km section of this cable from the locality of Kaweni towards the south-east of Mayotte. To do this, it will notably use the DAS system technology (for Distributed Acoustic Sensor), developed as part of a European project by the ESEO Group, the Acoustics Laboratory of the University of Le Mans and the 'IPGP. This will equip the dedicated portion of the FLY-LION3 cable with the equivalent of thousands of seismometers distributed along the fiber for vibration measurement purposes.

Today, fiber optics supports

Fiber Testing

Today, fiber optics support a large proportion of Internet, telephone and television data transmission around the world. As these networks and the number of users continue to grow, the development of standardized fiber optic testing practices becomes even more important.

The origins of fiber optic testing
The Origins of Fiber Testing

The transmission of an optical signal through a thin glass "fiber" is not a new concept. Over 100 years ago, experiments had shown that light can move through a curved glass substrate with almost no loss of its initial intensity. In the late 1960s, optical lasers, optical fibers based on silica glass and digital signals were combined to form the basis of the fiber optic communication networks we know today. Already in the 1990s, fiber optic networks could carry 100 times more information than traditional cables with electronic amplifiers.
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To be routed over optical fiber, electronic signals are converted into optical signals in the form of digital light pulses. These signals are transmitted, via fiber optic cables, to a receiver located at the end of the line, where the signals are converted so as to return to their original binary form. It is the format readable by computer systems and devices. To ensure the integrity of these optical signals over the entire length of long distance cables and complex networks, fiber optic test processes must constantly evolve.

10/100Base Dual Fiber Media Converter

10/100base dual fiber media converter is the conversion equipment of Ethernet optical-electronic signals between 10/100M UTP interface (TX)...